Paul: West, As noted previously, numerous public opinion polls show that fear of crime and personal safety reign above most other concerns.
Indeed, many Americans feel that their lives are unsafe and more subject to harm than at previous times. Crime coverage contributes to perceptions of danger and the emergence of the discourse of fear. Kenneth F. Researchers have argued for decades that such concerns are connected to the mass media coverage of news as well as entertainment. How the public views issues and problems is related to the mass media, although researchers disagree about the nature of this relationship. This is particularly apparent when fear is associated with popular topics like crime, violence, drugs, and gangs.
Mapping how fear has become associated with different topics over time can clarify how the mass media and popular culture influence public perceptions of danger and risk. See, also, Richard V.
S. Robert Lichter
Other work has shown that fear is informed by perceived membership. These boundaries occur through institutional processes that are grounded in everyday situations and encounters, including language, discourse, accounts, and conversation. Part of this language involves the discourse of fear. Discourse is more than talk and writing; it is a way of talking and writing. To regulate discourse is to impose a set of formal or informal rules about what can be said, how it can be said, and who can say what to whom Inasmuch as language is the principal means by which we express, manage, and conjure emotions, to regulate discourse is to regulate emotion.
The ultimate consequence is a regulation of action When a form of discourse is established as standard practice, it becomes a tool for reproducing inequality, because it can serve not only to regulate thought and emotion, but also to identify Others and thus to maintain boundaries as well. It is not fear of crime, then, that is most critical, but rather what this fear can expand into, what it can become.
The problem is that these activities reaffirm and help produce a sense of disorder that our actions perpetuate. Another consequence of the nature and extent of crime reporting is that the discourse of fear becomes taken for granted as a description of reality. What are very rare events are assumed to be common occurrences. Actually, she wounded herself and cut up her clothing in order to get some attention, particularly from her husband.
Stories of assaults and kidnappings blasted across headlines—even when false or greatly distorted—make it difficult for frightened citizens to believe that schools are one the safest places in American society. Researchers find that many of these hoaxes rely on stereotypes of marginalized groups, for example, poor people and racial minorities. Fear is part of our everyday discourse, even though we enjoy unprecedented levels of health, safety, and life expectancy.
Research also shows that the news coverage of the attacks on the United States on September 11, brought out a lingering and pervasive preoccupation with fear that has been exploited by government officials seeking to expand social control and limit civil liberties. After all, fear—more than danger or risk—is a pervasive emotional orientation that calls for strong action against those responsible. The remedy usually involves state authorities taking more control. The audience participates through hoaxes of fear. The postal service received nearly 16, anthrax reports, and investigated people who claimed to have mailed or received anthrax in letters.
Several others claimed that they received anthrax filled letters.
One Missouri woman, who initially claimed to have been sent a poisoned letter, admitted that she put flour and roach killer in the envelope, and then delivered it to police some 80 miles from her home. Louis Post Dispatch 28 November : B4. Fear has become a perspective or orientation to the world, rather than a response to a particular situation or thing. Fear is one of the few things that Americans share. The discourse of fear is constructed through evocative entertainment formats that promote visual, emotional, and dra- matic experience that can be vicariously lived, shared, and identified with by audience members.
Fear has led to a sense or an identity that is held in common by many Americans—that we are all actual or potential victims.
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The sense that something has happened to us, could happen to us, or probably will happen to us connects the present moment with resentments and blame about the past, as well as anxieties about the future. There can be no fear without actual victims or potential victims.
In the postmodern age, victim is a status and representation and not merely a person or someone who has suffered as a result of some personal, social, or physical calamity. Victimhood is now a status, a position open to all people who live in a symbolic environment marked by the discourse of fear. We are all potential victims, often vying for official recognition and legitimacy. Continual news coverage about crime and mayhem gradually transforms public discourse into one of victimization and threat. Without minimizing the dangers of everyday life, we can speak of danger and risk rather than fear, except when it is warranted.
It is possible to take more control of our social environment. A responsible news media will take action to move away from fear oriented info-tainment. Recent changes since in select journalistic organizations are encouraging. For example, the television station KVUE in Austin, Texas began following a different protocol for presenting crime stories.
Accordingly, they set forth five rules of thumb for covering crime news:. Does action need to be taken? Is there an immediate threat to safety?rodevine.tk
What is Media Framing? | critical media review
Is there a threat to children? Does the crime have significant community impact? Does the story lend itself to a crime-prevention effort?
The strongest claim was that their ratings would fall and that people would switch channels to the traditional blood and guts that leads local television newscasts across the country. Crime news and fear influence national and international affairs. Fear is a key component of the entertainment format that has shaped news reports for several decades. This usage has intensified in the United States around certain topics such as crime and terrorism.
I suggest that the U. Citizens became accustomed to giving up civil liberties to surveillance and enforcement efforts by formal agents of social control FASC. Government officials used the foundation of fear to build even more fear in the United States and to enact draconian legislation that has negated civil liberties.
The drug war and ongoing concerns with crime led to the expansion of fear in relation to terrorism. Kappeler, Mark Blmberg, and Gary W. The war on terrorism brought death and destruction to untold thousand of Iraqis. And still we receive messages promoting fear, asking for more security, promising more surveillance.
Multimodal Discourse Analysis. In Hyland, Ken, and Brian Paltridge eds. Continuum Companion to Discourse. London; New York. Systemic functional-multimodal discourse analysis SF- MDA : constructing ideational meaning using language and visual imagery. Sage 7 4 : — Ryan, Marie-Laure Narration in Various Media.
The Living Handbook of Narratology. Hamburg: Hamburg University.
US and International Coverage of the Election of Barack Obama: Trends and Differences
Toward a Definition of Narrative. Herman ed. The Cambridge Companion to Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 22— Schudson Michael The Objectivity Norm in American Journalism. Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism 2 2 , pp. Somers, Margaret R. Gibson Stephens, Mitchell Beyond news: the future of journalism. New York Columbia University Press. During the last decade, the promises of networked digital media have started to realize. Time and location independent production, distribution and consumption of media content, together with social media participation are now reality for everyone with a computing device and an Internet connection.
This socio-technological revolution has also made possible highly personalized and context-aware media services. My thesis focuses on designing and researching interactions that aim to provide new kinds of user experiences for contextual music recommendation and discovery through service concepts and prototypes. The main research objective is how to design enjoyable and rewarding music recommendation and discovery services that utilize contextual information from the interaction point of view? The underlying assumption of the study is that contextual information does matter and it is important to take this information into account when designing user experiences for music discovery and recommendation.
One of the key concepts of the work is personalization , i. Recommendation systems are a form of personalization, implemented in applications such as online dating and travel systems either by gathering information from the user automatically, or by user input. Another key concept, serendipity , i. By music interactions I refer to the human-technology interactions with recorded music content. The concept of contex t refers to a certain frame within which something exists or happens.
The importance of the concept is highlighted by the ability of modern mobile phones to adapt to and offer services tailored for the user situation. Location-awareness , achieved by global positioning system GPS , wireless local area networks WLAN , or radio signal measurement plays an important role in context-aware computing since it enables an accurate geographical positioning of mobile devices and their users. Indeed, positioning technologies embedded in the modern mobile devices enabled the first context-aware computing applications.
Ubiquitous media can be used everywhere; the term became widespread with the adoption of mobile media and communication devices. The main motivation for developing and researching contextual music interactions stems from the fact that people have a wide variety of psychological and social uses and functions for music across a wide variety of situations. Given that people listen to different music in different situations lays a foundation for the argument that context factors really matter in designing interactive music services. With ubiquitous streaming services such as YouTube and Spotify, we have entered an era of second generation of digital music services where music tracks do not need to be downloaded but they can be consumed as a stream over the Internet.
In most music consumption situations, physical discs or local music files are no longer needed. Today, when music is a truly ubiquitous commodity, it can be listened to in almost any situation, increasingly stressing the importance of context factors. Log in Create your blog Help.