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And numerous movies, radio shows and television shows have been inspired by the Rangers over the years. The Rangers are part of the history and mythology of the Old West. Over the years, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved. As former Ranger Capt. Bob Crowder once put it, "A Ranger is an officer who is able to handle any given situation without definite instructions from his commanding officer, or higher authority. This ability must be proven before a man becomes a Ranger. Stephen F.


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Austin assumed his late father's contract as empresario, or developer of settlements in the Mexican province of Tejas. He was authorized to recruit settlers from the U. Austin was to be rewarded for his services with land, titles and military powers over the colony.

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His colony, and those proposed by other empresarios, would serve to reinforce Mexico's claim to Texas and act as a buffer between the hostile Comanche Indians and Hispanic settlements at San Antonio de Bexar and Laredo. By , the settlements suffered frequent raids by the Comanche, Tonkawa and Karankawa Indians. Under Mexican law, Austin was authorized to form a militia to ward off Indian raids, capture criminals and patrol against intruders. In May, while Austin was in Mexico City, his lieutenant, Moses Morrison, used this authority to assemble a company of men to protect the Texas coast from the Tonkawa and Karankawa Indians.

After returning to Texas in August of , Austin asked for an additional ten men to supplement Morrison's company.

He called for "ten men The wages I will give said ten men is fifteen dollars a month payable in property. During Austin's day, companies of men volunteered and disbanded as needed. Some served for days and others for many months. The official records show that these companies were called by many names: ranging companies, mounted gunmen, mounted volunteers, minutemen, spies, scouts and mounted rifle companies.

By whatever name they were known, these units performed the same ranging duties. These early Texas Ranger had multicultural roots. Company rolls show that Anglos, Hispanics and American Indians served in all ranks from private to captain. Their tools and tactics were suited to the rugged frontier, and they provided their own horses and equipment. One writer said that a Texas Ranger could "ride like a Mexican, trail like an Indian, shoot like a Tennessean, and fight like the devil.

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Texas Rangers often served as volunteers since government offers of payment rarely materialized. In , as the movement for Texas independence was about to boil over, a council of Texas representatives created a "Corps of Rangers" to protect the frontier from hostile Indians.

They were required to furnish their own arms, mounts, and equipment.

The myth of protection

Settlers rebelled against the Mexican government in over increasing dissatisfaction with the Mexican government and the suspension of immigration from the U. The Texas Rangers played an important but little known role in this conflict. The only men to ride in response to Col. William B. Travis' last minute plea to defend the Alamo were Rangers who fought, and died, in the cause of Texas independence. He came to San Antonio in and within three years held the rank of Ranger Captain.

Hays built a reputation fighting raiding Indians and Mexican bandits. An Indian who rode with Hays and his men called the young Ranger Captain "brave too much". Hays' bravado was too much for many a hostile Indian or outlaw. In dealing with persons deemed a threat to Texas, Hays helped establish another Ranger tradition--rugged toughness mixed with a reliance on the latest technology. Colt had invented a fragile. No longer would his men have to pause in battle to reload single-shot pistols and rifles while the Indians continued firing arrows.

Colt built his reputation on the use of his weapons by the Texas Rangers. One of Hays' men, Samuel H. Walker, made some suggestions for improving the pistol which Colt adopted during the Mexican War. Produced in , the new six-shot revolver weighed nearly five pounds and was called the Walker Colt. In , within a year of Texas' admission as the 28th state of the Union, the United States and Mexico were at war. Walker joined one of several Ranger companies that were mustered into federal service to function as scouts.

The Rangers fought with such ferocity in the war they came to be called "Los diablos Tejanos" -- the Texas Devils. The luck Walker had after Mier did not hold. He was killed in the fighting. For the next decade after the Mexican War, the Rangers existed primarily as volunteer companies, raised when the need arose and disbanded when their work was done.

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During the Civil War, with thousands of Texans off fighting with the Confederate Army, frontier protection was afforded by a "Regiment of Rangers. The backbone of home front security was still the volunteer "ranging" company, whose members operated on the "legal authority" of the pistols they carried on their hips or the rifles swinging in their saddle holsters.

After the war, the Legislature passed a bill creating three companies of Texas Rangers but a bill to provide funding failed. Financial support for state law enforcement in the early 's was sporadic. For all practical purposes, there were no Texas Rangers for nearly a decade after the war. During this time, law enforcement was handled by a highly political and roundly hated organization known as the State Police. Texas, like other Southern states, was in the throes of reconstruction and any authority, civil or military, was distrusted. The force eventually was disbanded.

Following the upheaval of the Civil War and Reconstruction, The Frontier Battalion was organized in to create a permanent military force to protect the Texas frontier. Led by Major John B. Jones with six companies of 75 men each, the Rangers were tasked with defending the frontier from Indian raids.

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But by the end of the s, as tribes were forced out of Texas, the Indian threat had largely disappeared and the frontier seemed secure. The Rangers turned their attention from Indians to crime fighting in an increasingly lawless state. They stopped feuds, tracked cattle rustlers, and apprehended outlaws throughout Texas.


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In , a court ruling determined that only commissioned Rangers had full police powers, including the authority to make arrests. As a result, the force was abolished and reorganized in In the 's, Rangers preserved law and order in Big Bend mining towns, tracked down train robbers and even were called on to prevent an illegal prize fight from taking place on Texas soil. The promoters of the storied Fitzsimmons-Maher bout finally had to settle for staging the boxing match on an island in the Rio Grande.

In , the Rangers scouted , miles; made arrests; returned 2, head of stolen livestock to the owners, assisted civil authorities times and guarded jails on 13 occasions. In , the Frontier Battalion faded along with the frontier; but by July of , the Legislature passed a new law concerning the Ranger service.


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The force, to be organized by the governor, was created "for the purpose of protecting the frontier against marauding or thieving parties, and for the suppression of lawlessness and crime throughout the state. They did not even have a standard badge. The law authorized for Ranger companies of a maximum of 20 men each. The career of Company B. McDonald, and a book written about him, added much to the Ranger legend, including two of its most famous sayings. When sent to Dallas to prevent a scheduled prizefight, McDonald was greeted at the train station by the city's anxious mayor, who asked: "Where are the others?

There's only one prize-fight! Since the days of the Mexican War, Rangers had had occasional work to do along the long, meandering Rio Grande, but the emphasis on the river increased in with the outbreak of revolution in Mexico. Generally easy to ford, the Rio Grande had never been much more than a symbolic boundary. Some of the violence associated with the political upheaval in Mexico crossed the river into Texas. And on the title page of Paine's book on McDonald are 19 words labeled as Capt.

McDonald's creed: "No man in the wrong can stand up against a fellow that's in the right and keeps on a-comin'. Ramos was carrying a copy of the Plan of San Diego, a revolutionary manifesto supposedly written and signed at the South Texas town of San Diego.

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Versions of the plan call for the murder of all white citizens over 16 years of age. The goal was an independent republic, which might later seek annexation to Mexico. These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype.

Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs. Therefore, several authors have challenged the apparent superiority of HYVs not only compared to the traditional varieties alone, but by contrasting the monocultural system associated with HYVs with the polycultural system associated with traditional ones.

Cereal production more than doubled in developing nations between the years — While agricultural output increased as a result of the Green Revolution, the energy input to produce a crop has increased faster, [44] so that the ratio of crops produced to energy input has decreased over time. Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers , pesticides , herbicides , and defoliants and rely on machines, which as of rely on or are derived from crude oil , making agriculture increasingly reliant on crude oil extraction.